Oncohematology lives changing the paradigm with new therapies that show promising results in the treatment of both leukemias most common in adults: chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), accounting for 60% of all leukemias diagnosed in Argentina. These developments were presented this week at the Congress of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), held in San Diego, United States, where they can see the results that patients receive Average survival rates have not been seen so far for certain patient groups.
Regarding LLC during Congress, the progress of Phase 3 of the Murano study, which tested the combination of venecetoclast and rituximab, was reported in patients who had recurrence of this type of leukemia. This work involves a universe of 389 patients from 20 countries. Of the 130 patients who completed a full course of treatment and then discontinued, The assessment of the 6 and 12 month remission rates is 92 and 87%, Three-Year Global Survival, the new results obtained in this phase of the study, this is 87.9%, according to the lead author of the study, John Seymour, director of oncology at the Peter Macalam Center in Australia.
"This is good news for patients and for the medical community as long as there were no new medicines for long, and the results were limited and many side effects. change from intravenous drug to oral treatment, what changes the face of the disease because it is given for a limited period of time and then interrupted, "he explains. hunting horn Alicia Enrico, a doctor at the Italiano de La Plata Hospital and a research coordinator.
This new therapy consists of two years of oral therapy combined with the other intravenous drug in less time. "Once discontinued, patients managed to get remission without taking medication and staying. This is absolutely innovative. They have been tracked for 36 months and have 87% of patients with very good results, "Enrico adds.
In Argentina these two drugs (venetoclax and rituximab) are approved as monotherapy. ANMAT is now in the final stages of the approval for approval in the coming months for combined use.
CLL is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. It is characterized by the accelerated generation of abnormal white blood cells. These cells, when performing their function, are responsible for the fight against infections. It accounts for 30% of adult leukemia cases. It usually occurs in patients over 70 years of age and is twice as common in men as women. Of the total LLC, it is estimated that 30% of the patients diagnosed will need immediate treatment, another 30% will require it at some point in their life, but initially the patient becomes ill and then heals. And the remaining percentage will never require treatment.
As for acute myeloid leukemia, this is another type of blood cancer, one of the most aggressive, because it develops rapidly and uncontrollably. It affects primarily primitive or immature cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. These cells can not perform their functions the development of the disease is acceleratingIn general, patients diagnosed with this type of leukemia are those who have worse prognosis and about 40% of them – who did not qualify for chemotherapy due to comorbidity or old age – had poor treatment options so the survival was 6 months. It is usually found in people over 45 years old and the average age of diagnosis is 68 years.
At the ASH Congress two studies were presented in which venecenox was combined with two types of drugs that were used in this group of patients who are not suitable for intensive chemotherapy: two hypomethylates and cytarabine. The first of these two studies using the venomeclase with hypomethylative agents was led by researcher Daniel Poliae of the University of Colorado, Denver, USA. The second, led by Andrew Wey of Alfred Hospital and Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, combines venetoclax with low doses of cytarabine. In both studies, they have achieved high rates of referral (about 60%) and mean survival of 17 months, which is an important advance for patients who have not had effective treatment. These combinations were approved shortly a week ago by the FDA, so it is supposed that this new therapy could reach Argentina over a period of approximately one year.
"Patients who can benefit from this new treatment are those who, due to age or combined illnesses, can not receive intensive chemotherapy because the same chemotherapy can cause death." For those who have very poor treatment options, these are these drugs, hypomethylates and cytarabine in low doses, but with six-month survival, "he explains. hunting horn Dr. Hernan Dick, an oncohematologist, an AML specialist at the Italiano de La Plata Hospital. "These studies, combining each of them with a venecoclass, had remarkable results, 70% of the 16 or 17-month responses of full and medium duration," said Gutierrez de La Plata, a doctor at the hospital.
It is believed that some of them are diagnosed in Argentina 2300 new cases of leukemia per year, according to data from the National Cancer Institute.
San Diego (United States). Special envoy.