Monday , July 26 2021

Studies shed light on genomic characteristics that make plants good candidates for domestication



<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/researchshed.jpg" data-src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/ newman / gfx / news / hires / 2019 / researchshed.jpg "data-sub-html =" Left: highly branched plants of teosinte, wild relatives of corn. Glycin soy, wild soy relatives. New research sheds light on how home effects affect corn and soybean genomes. Regards: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson (Glycin soy) ">

<img src = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/800/2019/researchshed.jpg" alt = "Researches shed light on genomic characteristics that make plants good candidates for taming" title = "Left: highly branched plants of teosinte, wild relatives of corn Right: miniature pods of the vine." Glycin soy, wild soy relatives. New research sheds light on how home effects affect corn and soybean genomes. Regards: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson (Glycin soy) "/>
To the left: highly branched plants of teosinte, wild relatives of corn. Right: miniature pods of the vine Glycin soy, wild soy relatives. New research sheds light on how home effects affect corn and soybean genomes. Regards: Sherry Flint-Garcia (teosinte) and Scott Jackson (Glycin soy)

New research published this week identifies the genomic features that could make maize and soy de-oiling two of the most important species in the world.


The study, published Thursday in the reviewed academic journal Biology of the genome, is important for how scientists understand taming or the process through which humans could grow plants for desirable traits during the centuries of cultivation. Researchers draw on enormous amounts of corn and soybean genomes and compare parts of the genomes of wild species and domestic varieties, noting that the genomes are most clearly distinguishable.

Researchers from the Iowa State University work with scientists from the University of Georgia, Cornell University and the University of Minnesota. Researchers have researched more than 100 acquisitions of maize comparisons with teosinte, its ancestors. They also looked at 302 views from a wild and home soybean data set.

"We cut the genomes in certain plots and compare them," says Jianming Yu, an agronomist professor and pioneering honored chairman in corn breeding. "This is a new angle that has not been much about the evolution of genome and domestication. We were looking for" macro-changes "or basic models of the genome – and we found them."

Human cultivation has created an obstacle in the genetic material associated with corn and soy, said Yu. Since humans are selected for specific traits they find desirable in their crops, they limit the genetic variations present in the genome of the plant. However, the researchers found several areas in the genomes of the species included in the study where the divergence of the genome seems to concentrate.

"These models, based on a wide range of genomic changes, give an idea of ​​how domestic influence affects genetics of species," said Jinyu Wang, the first author of the article and graduate in agronomy.

Variations in nucleotide bases between wild and domestic species appear to be more pronounced in the non-gene parts of genomes or parts of genomes that do not encode proteins. The study also detects larger variations in the peri-centric regions, or in regions close to the chromosome centromer, and in areas with high methylation, or areas in which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule. Methylation may alter the activity of the DNA segment without changing its sequence.

The study looked at the occurrence of mutations in the genomes of tamoxifi cultures and their progenitor species.

"We now think it is possible that good candidates for domestication, such as corn and soybeans, will be in a middle position in their desire to mutate," said Xianran Li, an associate professor of agronomy and co-author of the study.

"If there is no mutation then everything will remain the same and we have no evolution," said Yu. "But too many mutations can destroy one species.

The results of the study indicate important links between ultraviolet radiation from the sun and the evolution of the genome. UV radiation is a natural mutagene and leaves a special imprint when it happens, Yu says. The authors of the study have found much more than these traces of modern maize and soy than their wild relatives.


The genetics of corn gives an idea of ​​the historical distribution of cultures in America


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State University of Iowa

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The research sheds light on the genomic characteristics that make plants good candidates for taming (2019, April 24)
drawn up on 25 April 2019
by https://phys.org/news/2019-04-genomic-features-good-candidates-domestication.html

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