Tuesday , July 27 2021

Origin of the Universe: "Another Mistake"

How does this condition occur with LHC?
We face nuclear kernels that are as heavy as possible in the LHC are the leading nucleus. This leads to the conversion of kinetic energy into heat temperaturewhich is about 200,000 times temperature in the interior of the sun.

What happened before, do we know?
on universe is in

The big Bang, singularity, appeared. Since then, Khlwin has expanded and cooled by 2.7 degrees. Before the plasma quark-gluon plasma there was a period of rapid expansion called inflation and electricity after the single phase transitionin which electromagnetism and weak atomic energy are separated. All this happened in a very short time, then a few tenths of a millionth of a second The big Bang then there was quark glucuronic plasma (QGP).

Can we find traces of this time directly in universe observe?
No direct traces in universe, We can get out of expanding universe recalculate and know when The big Bang was held. Of the frequency of the light elements hydrogen, helium and lithium, as well as their isotopes, we can draw conclusions because these atomic nuclei in the first seconds and minutes of universe from protons and the neutrons that have crystallized from the plasma come from the early phase universeThe cosmic microwave background also allows you to look back, but only up to 270,000 years later The big Bangfrom this universe became transparent for radiation. Quark Gluon plasma and its properties open a direct window to origin,

What do we know about QGP?
The original idea was that it could be an ideal gas. However, we have found that it is three to four times more critical in the lab temperature still strongly interlinked system. We can do this today temperature and the viscosity of QGP. It shows that viscosity behaves like ultramodern quantum systems. So the coldest and hottest systems we know have something in common. We also know that QGP is due to the high temperature expanded a lot. The pressure is so high that it expands in the laboratory at three quarters of the speed of light.

So, the idea of ​​gas is dead?
There is the idea of ​​being much higher temperatures separation occurs and then the system behaves like ideal gas.

Which QGP volumes are generated in the lab?
We're talking about five to ten thousand cubic meters, that's about 10-41 Cubic meters. It sounds a little, but there are about 30,000 in it quarks and gluonswho interact with each other through their color taxi. This is quite a soup, the particles are also moving on macroscopic scales, ie. in this context at distances with more than one proton radius.

What is the relationship between them? quarks and gluons?
LHC produces about ten times more gluons from quarks,

QGP is a coherent state such as Bose-Einstein's condensate?
We tested this. The density of our QGP is high enough that it would be possible, but we do not see any signs. QGP is rather a mess.

Is QGP the ultimate point for matter, or can another country wait for higher energies?
Being in front of the electric phase transition To look, we will have to have enough energy to make one temperature to reach hundreds of Gigaelektronenvolt. This is not feasible and may be so. Today we have energy in LHC and temperature of about 150 MeV, which, as has already been said, 200,000 times temperature in the interior of the sun. The energy density increases with the fourth power temperatureSo you really need a huge amount of energy.

There are no theoretical ideas, what could happen then?
No. But there is an idea to increase the density without heating. In the neutron stars, such a cold QGP may occur. We can recognize this from the equation of the state, ie. energy, tension and density.

What does this substance look like?
Unfortunately, I can not imagine this. We will be able to prove that indirectly, if at all.

What are the most important questions in QGP investigations today?
At present we are particularly interested phase transition to normal matter. We investigate this with complex statistical methods, measurements are very complex. LHC will get an update soon. From 2021, we can drive much higher intensities with 50,000 particle collisions per second. This should allow us to observe events that are still avoided due to their rarity.

on phase transition happens very quickly?
The lab is coming quarks and gluons only ten femmes. Then it's over.

On which particles is QGP condensed?
This is where all the famous astronomers go out, including antimatter. At 70 million collisions, we found ten anti-alpha particles. If you follow the condensation circuit to the end, stay protonsNeutrons and atomic nuclei remain. Which particles occur in the meantime depends only on temperature from.

occurs also unknown particles?
Then we are also careful. For example, we can rule out that the theorists H-dibaryon, the six quarks exists, exists. We found that in predictions temperature no one arises. After hypertensives and antihypertensives, in which several protons or neutrons are replaced with lambda particles that we are still looking for.

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