Monday , November 30 2020

Brain Computer Interface allows people with paralysis to control Tablet devices



Brain Computer Interface allows people with paralysis to control Tablet devices

Tablets and other mobile computing devices are part of everyday life, but their use may be difficult for people with paralysis. A new study by the BrainGate * consortium shows that the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) can enable people with paralysis to work directly with the tablet device just by thinking about cursor movements and clicks.

In a study published on November 21 in PLOS ONE, three participants in tetralogy clinical trials, each using the BrainGate BCI research, which registers the activity directly from a small sensor placed in the crust, can run on the commonly used tablet programs , including e-mail, chat, music, and video sharing apps. Conference participants communicate with family, friends, members of the research team and their colleagues. They surf the web, check the weather and shop online. One participant, a musician, played a fragment of Beethoven's "Ode to Joy" on a digital piano interface.

"For years, BrainGate has been working to develop neuro-science and neuro-engineering know-how to allow people who have lost motor skills to control external devices only by thinking of moving their own arm or hand, Dr. Jaime Henderson, Senior Article Editor and Stanford University Neurosurgeon. "In this study, we used this know-how to restore the ability of people to control exactly the same day-to-day technologies they used before the onset of their illnesses." It was great to see the participants express or just find a song they wanted to hear . "

The investigated BrainGate BCI includes an aspirin-sized baby implant that detects signals related to the planned brain brain cortex motions. These signals are decoded and directed to external devices. BrainGate researchers and other groups using similar technologies have shown that the device can enable people to move their robotic hands or regain control of their own limbs even though they have lost motor skills from illness or injury. This cooperative study includes scientists, engineers and doctors from Carney Institute for Brain Science at Brown University, Providence Veterans Medical Center (PVAMC), Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), and Stanford University.

Two of the participants in this latest study had a weakness or loss of hand and leg movement due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive disease that affects the nerves in the brain and spine that control the movement. The third participant was paralyzed due to spinal cord injury. All were included in a clinical study aimed at assessing the safety and feasibility of the BrainGate system under study.

For this study, brain signals from the BrainGate BCI were directed to a Bluetooth interface configured to work as a wireless mouse. The virtual mouse was linked to a Google Nexus 9 unmodified tablet. The participants were then asked to perform a set of tasks designed to see how well they can move around in a variety of commonly used applications and move from an application to an application. Participants look at music selections in the streaming service, search YouTube videos, browse news aggregators, and write emails and chats.

The survey showed that participants were able to make up to 22 point and click kills per minute while using different applications. In text applications, participants were able to collect up to 30 effective characters per minute using standard email and text interfaces.

Participants report that the interface is intuitive and fun to use, the study notes. One of them said, "I felt more natural than the time I remember with the help of a mouse." Another said there was "greater control over what I normally use".

Scientists are pleased with how quickly participants have used the tablet interface to explore their hobbies and interests.

"It was great to see that the participants did the tasks we asked them to do, but the most satisfying and fun part of the study was when they just did what they wanted to do – using the apps they liked to shop, watch videos, or just talking to friends, "said lead author Paul Nuwyukian, a bio engineer at Stanford. "One of the participants told us at the beginning of the process that one of the things she really wanted to do was play again, so let's see that her game on a digital keyboard is fantastic."

The fact that tablet drives have been completely unchanged and all pre-loaded accessibility software has been excluded is an important part of the study, researchers said.

"The support technologies available today, though important and useful, are inherently limited in terms of both the speed of use that they allow and the flexibility of the interface," said Krishna Sheynoy, senior author of the report and electrical engineer and neurologist at Stanford University and Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "This is largely due to the limited input signals available.With the wealth of input from BCI, we were able to buy only two Amazon tablets, switched on Bluetooth, and the participants could use them with our intelligent BrainGate system appeared from the box.

Researchers say the study also has the potential to open important new lines of communication between patients with severe neurological deficits and their health care providers.

"This has great potential to restore reliable, fast, and rich communication to someone with a lockout syndrome who can not speak," said Jose Albiti Sanabria, who conducted this study as a biomedical engineering student at Brown University. "This could not only provide greater interaction with family and friends, but could provide a deeper description of current health problems with carers."

As a neurologist and critical neurologist, senior author Dr. Lee Hochberg of Brown University, Massachusetts General Hospital and Providence Medical Center sees a tremendous potential for BCI's reconstructive abilities illustrated in this study.

"When I see someone in the neuro-intensive care unit who has had a sharp stroke and lost the ability to move or communicate, I would like to say," I'm very sorry that this has happened, but we can recover your ability to use the technologies you used before, and you will be able to use them again tomorrow, "Hohberg said," And we are getting closer to being able to tell someone who is diagnosed with ALS, "even while we continue to look for a cure, you will never lose your ability to communicate. "This work step towards these goals. "

Other authors of the book include Jad Saab, Chetan Pandarinath, Beata Jarosievich, Christine Blay, Brian Franco, Stephen Marnoff, Emad Escandar and John Someral.

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