Dental problems are a chronic disease that is most common and often common in the population, which is an important public health problem given its high impact, especially in the low socio-economic stratum, as well as the high treatment costs,
Vidal Alejandro Poems, a dentist and professor at Finis Terrae's Faculty of Dentistry, describes the problems most commonly asked by the Chileans.
This is a multifactorial chronic disease of microbial origin, characterized by the destruction of the solid tissues of the tooth. It begins with tooth enamel demineralisation, the most superficial tooth layer caused by acids that generate a set of organized bacteria called bacterial plaque.
They take advantage of the nutritional remnants of our "civilized" diet, which is usually rich in carbohydrates, contained in sweets, biscuits and beverages, among others.
"After this initial attack and superficial chemical type, the bacteria continue to invade the structure of the tooth, causing the destruction of the dentin, the tissue that follows deeply to the enamel"Poem explains.
According to Minsal's statistics, cavities start from the first years of life and show a significant increase with age. At 2 years, the incidence of caries was 17.5%, 4 years 49.6%, and 6 years when mixed teeth, temporary and final teeth, 70.4%. At age 12, it is 62.5% and increases to 99.4% in adults between 65 and 74 years of age.
2. Gingival and periodontal disease:
Pomés points out that another of the tooth problems that most Chileans are consulted is gingivitis, which is the inflammation of the gums caused mainly by the same bacterial plaque described above.
According to the academic staff, if this inflammation is not controlled, the process will continue with a periodontal disease that has the same bacterial origin.
"Gingivitis is characterized by loss of dental insertion, ie loss of tissues that hold the tooth inside the jawbone, what without treatment will also lead to the loss of these, "emphasizes the professor.
3. Dentomaxillary anomalies:
These are anatomical and / or functional changes that affect the dento-moxillary and / or skeletal harmonics of the oral cavity. According to Pomés, there are several related factors, including a genetic component, a lack of growth of one or both of the jaws, anomalies in the number and size of teeth, premature tooth loss, interproximal caries, poor wound habits, and breathing in the mouth, among others.
4. Oral Cavity:
This is a disease that is characterized as a chronic and complex process. "The main risk factors are tobacco consumption, alcohol consumption and sun exposure", signaled Pomés.
Cases of oral cancer and pharynx, according to Minsal, represent 1.5% of the total cancers in men and 0.7% in women.
The Professor of the Faculty of Dentistry at Finis Terrae University emphasizes that it is essential to seek strategies to encourage the inclusion of healthy oral hygiene and food habits by the pediatric population. "The delivery of oral health knowledge from the dentist to the education team is key.In addition, patients should periodically visit the dentist", he concluded.