San Jose, Feb. 4 (Ccss.sa.cr/ElPaís.cr))- LThe Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS) shows remarkable progress in the prevention and control of cervical cancer over the past three decades, as the disease has fallen by 54% and mortality by 48% since 1989.
Data is revealed by physician Alejandro Calderon of the project "Strengthening the overall cancer care" based on data from the National Tumor Register to indicate the institutional success in dealing with this type of cancer.
At the regional level, the progress of CCSS is also underlined: at present, Costa Rica is the second Latin American country with the lowest mortality rate of this type of cancer after Chile.
Dr. Roberto Cervantes, a medical director, says that achievements are the result of a combination of women's commitment to their health as they regularly make cytoscopy and institutional efforts to strengthen the National Cytology Laboratory and the attention to suspicious injuries.
The primary test for detecting lesions that can become cancer and treat them before they develop is Papanicolaou. According to the household survey for 2016, 85% of older women have attended the exam.
Papanicolaou identifies scams, inflammations, infections and other problems that over time can become DYSPLASIAS, which are pre-cancerous lesions, and that if left untreated, they may become cancer in the future.
When Papanicolaou changes, but patients are treated, they get healed and remain in control to avoid other problems in the future.
Along with providing self-service, the other key point is to have a specialized laparoscopic treatment laboratory. The National Cytology Laboratory is staffed and tech- nologically upgraded to such an extent that it reaches a one-day response rate between the laboratory sample presentation and the result of the diagnosis.
For 20 years, the lab has evaluated over 6 million tests, the results of which have contributed to reducing the disease and mortality from this type of cancer.
preventable; however, the cases continue to exist.
Although the country has reduced the impact of cervical cancer by half in thirty years, the impact is still a challenge to public health and personal care.
This is because, although women have knowledge of the preventive importance of the test and resort to it, there is a group of women who have not yet included the test in their own care or do not do so at the recommended frequency and are at risk of developing Cervical cancer without realizing it.
According to the National Sexual and Reproductive Health Study 2015, 23% of women aged between 20 and 44 receive a cytoplasm less than once every two years. The same is true for 17% of women aged 45-64.
The reasons for postponing the test are different: the fear of the test or the feeling of inconvenience occurs in 9% of women between 20 and 44 and believing that they can wait longer is the justification for 30% of women between 45 and 64 years. In addition, 47% of middle-aged women ensure that health teams have never indicated it.
Thus, although the preventable cancer and the test is present in all fetuses, the National Tumor Register reports that the disease is 13.5 per cent of the population in 2015 and the mortality rate is 5.9 per cent. thousands of inhabitants in 2017.
In 2015, 372 cancers were reported locally, 321 diagnosed invasively with other organs and 143 deaths were recorded in 2017. On average, in recent years, it can be said that every 12 hours there is a new cancer case cervix. in the country
Cases occur across the country, but the biggest impact is concentrated in Puntarenas, Guanacaste and Lemon. There are cases of all ages, but there is a greater impact on mortality among women aged 40-45 and over 75 years.
Therefore, regardless of age or place of residence, every woman should remember that Pap every two years from 20 to 65 years is the easiest way to prevent cervical cancer even if no partner or Dr. Alejandro Calderon is a common recommendation.
CCSS tried to manage community causes (explaining the early detection for women without symptoms) of emotions (emphasizing that they can gain access to review through doctors) and facilitating access (doing health reports where it was taken) the sample for Pope at a comfortable time).
Overall health reduces the risk of cancer.
Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause, but it is not sufficient for cancer, says Dr. Ileana Kirosh, a member of the technical coordination of cancer in medical management.
This means that in order to have cancer, there must be an infection of the virus; Medical literature, however, says that other conditions mean that the body does not naturally eliminate the virus, as is the case with the majority of the population. Smoking is one of these factors and the increase in risk among women is 20%.
Since 1984 he knows that cancer is produced by human papillomavirus, which is transmitted through sexual contact. It is claimed that 80% of the population can infect the virus at some point in their lifetime and most of the time the body eliminates it by itself. However, if the infection becomes persistent, it may take from 10 to 30 years to develop an injury like cancer after infection.
An important point of preventive cervical cancer training is to note that this window is the one that detects and treats precancerous lesions, and information is also needed to understand that the presence of non-partner periods does not disqualify the importance of the study .
It is therefore important for women to be examined every two years, aged 20 to 65. From this date, the doctor can tell whether it is necessary or not to continue with the examinations.
Some frequently asked questions about health services:
- If I go to menopause, should I do the test?
Even if you have reached menopause, you should have routine examinations and prophylactic examinations, such as Pap tests and mammography. These are one of the most important aspects of personal care in this period of life. CCSS recommends the exam up to 65 years.
- What symptoms should I observe between Pap tests?
Precancerous cervical conditions rarely cause symptoms. In order to detect problems, a pelvic examination and a Pap test are usually required.
When the cancer is present in the cervix, the most common symptom is abnormal bleeding. Bleeding may begin and stop between regular menstrual periods or may occur after sex or syringe (although showering is not recommended).
Another symptom is the abnormal vaginal discharge. Pain is not an early warning sign of the disease. These symptoms can be caused by other conditions and are not sure signs of cancer; But be sure to consult your doctor if any of these symptoms occur.
- What is the preparation of the patient for the test?
No special preparation is required. The woman should avoid only sexual contact, vaginal cleansing, spermicide creams or drugs administered vaginally two days before cytology.
The best time for cytology is between 10 and 20 days after the first day of menstruation or at any time after the menopause.