Tuesday , December 1 2020

"Narcos México": 5 historical key to understanding the Netflix series BBC | World | Mexico



while Joaquin El Capo Guzman he is hardly a trader in drug trafficking, several men were masters and masters of the emerging drug trafficking in Mexico,

Men like Pedro Aviles, Miguel Angel Felix Galardo, Ernesto "Don Nieto" Fonseca or Rafael Caro were the pioneers of a lucrative and forcible business that turned the country into the present.

The "Narcos Mexico", issued by Netflix Last week he described the origin of these names in "real-time dramatization".

Since it is not a documentary work, some of the passages described in the production have changes in what the story says has happened.

However, a few moments are key to understanding the world of drug trafficking and the situation of Mexico now. And on BBC Mundo we highlight five.

1. Origin of the cartels

During the decade of the 1980s, what would have been the structure of Mexican drug trafficking organized in the "cartels" was forged three decades later.

The series of Netflix notes the emergence of the Guadalajara cartel – seated in the second largest city in Bulgaria Mexico– as the beginning of the large alliance of drug trafficking organizations in 1980.

Until then, there were small groups run by local bosses, but the association led by Miguel Angel Felix Galloro laid the foundations for drug trafficking.

He is seconded by Ernesto "Don Nieto" Fonseca, Rafael Caro Quintero, Manuel Salcido "El Kociloko", Juan Jose Quintero, Pablo Aosta, Jesus El Mayo Zambada and Juan Jose Esparagosa El Azul.

The union was also breeding for people such as the brothers Arellano Felix, the brothers Beltrán Leyva, Hector El Gouero Palma and the future and powerful leader Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán, who was initially the head of security.

"Nearly illiterate villagers such as Caro Quintero, Don Netto, El Azul, El Mayo and El Chapo would not have gone far without a collusion between businessmen, politicians and the police," says journalist Annabel Hernades in her book Los señores del narco.

But for those times (1984), in the eastern part of the country, another organization is emerging: the Gulf cartel, one of the most powerful since then.

The roots of this organization are even older, because Juan-led has emerged as a smuggler of a group of alcohol during the ban in the United States in the 1930s.

2. Was the "chief of staff" first?

Miguel Angel Felix Galardo noted before and then in the history of drug trafficking Mexico,

While browsing the series from Netflix, the so-called "Chief of Staff" is the organizer of the first major marijuana production and trafficking organization Mexico to the United States.

But he was not the first Mexican boss to bring cocaine to the United States, as the series relies on. He was the mentor and former head of the Sinaloa gang, Pedro Aviles, according to Annabel Hernadez's research.

The so-called "León de la Sierra", killed in 1978, is a pioneer in this drug from South America.

Once the Guadalajara Guild Union was formed, Felix Gallardo also wanted to extend it to cocaine and contact Pablo Escobar, the leader of the Medellin cartel in Colombia.

Until the late 1980s, Felix Gallardo's alliance with Escobar dealt with 60% of cocaine consumed in the United States Mexico, according to the US Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA).

Although he was not the first, the "Chief of Staff" was the great promoter of this area of ​​drug trafficking.

A key person was Amado Carrillo Fuentes, called "Master of Heaven" by the Saberliner fleet, Learjet and Cessna, who owns.

Carliso Fuentes will be the heir of Escobar's "successor" on the market, as El Capo Guzman, the brothers Beltran Leiva and Hector Palma are rising, explains Hernady.

3. Caro Quintero changed everything

"Narcos Mexico"he depicts Capo Raphael Caro Quintero as a carefree man, one of the most violent members of the Guadalajara cartel, and who managed to make a young girl fall in love with the ruling Jalisco family.

But his personality made him commit one of the organization's biggest mistakes: the kidnapping of American agent Enrique "Kiki" Camarena, from DEA.

Caro Quintero, originally from the same municipality of El Chapo Guzmán, grew up between the planting and harvesting of marijuana and gradually climbed to one of the most powerful drug smugglers in the 1980s.

"Caro Quintero belongs to the generation that laid the foundations for cocaine trafficking," says journalist José Reveles.

Capo of Guadalajara cartel is also known for its extravagant life and taste for women, especially the one he falls in love with: Sara Cozio, nephew of governor Guillermo Cozio.

He was arrested in Costa Rica after Caro Quintero escaped following the plot to kill agent Kiki Kamarena, says journalist Annabel Hernades.

"Don Netto admitted that he and Caro Quintero had decided to kidnap Camarena," explains Hernández.

This fact led to the United States' greatest involvement in Mexican drug trafficking, which eventually led to the collapse of the Guadalajara cartel and changed the playing field of time.

A controversial decision by a judge gave him his freedom in 2013, a decision that was disputed too late because he was already released.

He is currently one of the most wanted fugitives in the world Mexico as well as the country's prosecution service and DEA offer awards for their location.

"We are committed to bringing to justice that dangerous criminal and cartel leader responsible for the brutal murder of a DEA agent," FBI Deputy Director David L. Bodic warned this year.

4. The historical ranch El Búfalo

One of the biggest blows for the Guadalajara cartel organization was the historic confiscation of more than 13,000 tonnes of marijuana from the El Bhafalo ranch, according to journalist Jose Revel.

Planning was not in the state of Zakateka, as it is in the Netflix series, and in the state of Chihuahua (to the north), in the dry areas of Camargo, where agriculture requires enormous resources.

"Caro Quintero has developed a way to industrialize marijuana cultivation: it is supposed to be the one who designed the work of the El Búfalo ranch," Annabel Hernades explains.

Planning according to current investigations is with the protection of the Federal Security Office and employs more than 10,000 employees.

"It was an authentic marijuana factory," said Hernández.

There, the Federal Prosecutor's Office, in cooperation with DEA, led the military operation leading to the confiscation, estimated at $ 8,000,000 at that time.

Caro Quintero's process determined that the capo kidnapped Kiki Kamarena because it was part of the intelligence operation that carried out the operation against the ranch El Búfalo.

5. Half a million deaths after 30 years

At the beginning of the series, the producers launched amazing data on drug abuse: "Over the past 30 years, Mexico half a million people have been killed. "

Mexico She has experienced high levels of violence as a result of organized crime – a situation that has worsened since the beginning of Nar. "Drug War" in 2007

From January 1997 to October 2018, in which there was an official number, 358 077 people were killed in the country, victims of "intentional murder", that is, deliberate murders.

These statistics may include both murders arising from drug trafficking activities and general killings, but there is an immense "black figure" of murders that is not known.

Murders in Mexico since 1997

Official data

Given the steady trend between 1997 and 2007, there are an average of about 13,000 murders per year.

Calculation of the previous nine years – to accommodate the three decades of "Narcos Mexico"from 1988 to 2018 – will add another 117,000 more killings to 358,077 of the existing number.

This leads to a total of about 475,000 murders Mexico for 30 years, something close to what the series says, but that can only be proven if there is a record.

"A story that never ends," he says.Narcos Mexico"when we talk about violence from drug trafficking.


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