The mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) in the solar orbit is designed to study the sun and the inner heliosphere (the closest to our star unexplored regions) and thus to understand and even predict the chaotic behavior of the star. on which our lives depends. At its closest point, the ship will come closer to the Sun than any other mission has achieved, withstanding the heat of warmth, and will carry its telescopes to almost a quarter of the distance from our planet to the star. In this way, it will provide unique data and images of the Sun.
Solar Orbiter will be the first satellite to offer close-up images of the polar regions of the Sun, very difficult to observe from the Earth, from latitudes greater than 25 degrees. It will almost coincide with the rotation of the Sun around its axis for a few days, so it will allow us to see for the first time how the solar storms are formed for an extended period of the same point. It will also provide data on the side of the Sun that is not visible on Earth.
Combined with local and remote instruments, and thanks to the design of the mission to investigate the internal heliosphere, the Solar Orbiter will seek answers to the key question of heliophytis: How does the Sun create and control the heliosphere? This basic and general scientific goal can be extended to four fundamental and interrelated scientific issues that the solar orbiter will also address:
What causes the solar wind and where does the coronary magnetic field come from?
– How do sun transients stimulate heliospheric variability?
-How do the eruptions produce the emission of energy particles that fill the heliosphere?
– How does solar dynamo work and how does the sun and heliosphere connect?
Almost a quarter of the distance from the Earth to the Sun, the Solar Orbiter will be exposed to solar radiation 13 times more intense than what we experience on Earth. In this way, the satellite must support powerful emissions of atomic particles from explosions in the solar atmosphere.
To counter the adverse environment and very high temperatures, the solar orbit must be well-equipped. It will take advantage of the new technologies developed by ESA for the BepiColombo Mission to Mercury, the planet closest to the Sun, such as the heat-resistant solar panels and the high-frequency high-frequency antenna.
The large-scale images of strange sunny landscapes where the sparkling gas dances and descends into the powerful magnetic field promise spectacularly. They will show 180 km (I think the width of the visible solar disk is 1.4 million kilometers). Not only scientists, but society as a whole, will be fascinated by the frenetic activity of the Sun, so peaceful at first glance.
An artistic recreation of the Solar Orbital. (Image: ESA / AOES)
At the moment of its maximum orbit around the Sun, the Solar Orbiter will reach the same speed as our star rotates around its axis. It will be the first time in the history of solar research that a ship will achieve it. Solar Orbiter will be able to track a certain area of the solar atmosphere for much longer than on Earth. In this way, it will be possible to observe days when storms are formed in the atmosphere.
Our Sun is well-accompanied: only the Milky Way has more than 200,000 million stars, and the Sun is one of them. All the stars we can see with the naked eye are in the Milky Way.
Then we discover some curious facts of our royal star.
Stars are factories of new elements. During their lives and when they die, they turn their hydrogen gas into the rest of the periodic table. These elements make up the Earth and each of us.
The mass of a star (ie the whole matter it contains) determines its temperature, its luminosity and color, and the way it lives and dies.
Our Sun is more massive than the average for the stars in its surroundings. Almost 90% of the stars have a smaller mass, so they are cooler and weaker.
The hottest and most massive stars are bright and blue, and the cooler and more massive stars are vague and red. Yellow stars, like our Sun, are halfway.
About 99% of the stars, including our Sun, will become white dwarfs at the end of their lives. Only about one percent of the stars are massive enough to explode in the form of a supernova.
The processes that run in the Sun make the proton energy take more than 200,000 years to get from the kernel to the surface. This light takes another eight minutes to reach the Earth.
The iron in our blood is formed in the nucleus of stars that exploded billions of years ago.
The sun contains 99.9% of all matter in our solar system.
For one second, the Sun converts four million tons of matter into pure energy.
The radius of the Sun is 695,993 kilometers, which is equal to 109 times the radius of the Earth.
If the Sun was an empty sphere, it would take about a million lands to fill it.
The sun runs around its axis approximately every 27 days.
The surface of the Sun rotates at different speeds in different latitudes. Fastest spin on the equator and is about 25.4 days. The slowest rotation takes place at the poles and is approximately 36 days.
The sun is about 150 million kilometers from Earth and is almost 5 billion years old.
On April 8, 1947, the largest spot in modern history reached its maximum size, with an area equal to 35 times the Earth's.
The core of the Sun is nearly as dense as lead and has a temperature of about 15 million degrees Celsius. The surface of the Sun is 5,982 degrees Celsius.
Sometimes flames heat the surface of the Sun, which reaches temperatures of about 45 million degrees Celsius, much higher than in the nucleus.
The main energy Earth receives from the sun is radiant energy or sunlight. (Source: ESA)