Saturday , December 5 2020

Characteristic "shaking" of flames near the center of the Milky Way: Confirming the existence of black holes – Scientific research – cnBeta.COM



Astronomers have found that there is a "hot spot" around the massive black hole stream and has a characteristic "irradiation" of infrared radiation that provides a supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy. New evidence. Avery Broderick, an astronomer at the University of Waterloo, Canada, who was involved in building a model of the central black hole of the Milky Way many years ago, said that observations after 13 years have finally paid off.

This new study includes Brodker's work many years ago. The study showed that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, known as Sagittarius A *, emits three flares (also known as visible hotspots). The team found an unstable explosion from these missiles to find the disk to accumulate around a black hole. The accrediting disk is a disk structure formed by a gravitational force falling around a black hole or neutron star to the central celestial body. By studying the fires, scientists have described the behavior of Sagittarius A *.

Broderick's black hole theory is based on the research of the earlier two teams in the near infrared survey of the Milky Way center. The two teams are astronomer Reinhard Genzel of the Max Planck Institute of Physics in Germany and Andrea Gesch, a researcher at the University of California at Los Angeles. And Mark Morris, whose work reveals that the center of the Milky Way is unstable but will be extremely bright for a period of about 30 or 40 minutes.

Astronomers believe there are supermassive black holes in the center of most, if not all, large galaxies. So in 2005, when Broodrick worked with astronomer Avi Loeb at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, he proposed the periodic illumination observed at the center of the galaxy. Known as bright infrared light – from a super large object such as a black hole.

This theory is supported by new evidence. Astronomers have found a very bright, thick pile of stars (called "nuclear clusters" orbiting in the central galaxy), and infrared observations show that the stars at the center of the Milky Way travel about 4 million times the mass of the Sun, again showing the presence of but Broderick said that before the new study, all observations were not enough to prove that there were black holes in the center of the Milky Way.

Sudden behavior

Broderick said that the three radiations from the center of the Milky Way, which were recently discovered, are the products of black-and-white gravitational lenses. "The black hole acts like the headlamp of the lighthouse, there is a local area for spraying, but not a sudden lightening of the spraying space itself, which causes outbursts," he said. Conversely, gravitational pulling of a black hole bends the light produced by the jet, and increases it so that we can observe it. Broderick explains: "This is the cause of fire, the amplification of ultimate gravity."

Based on this result, Broderick and Liber originally predicted that in the storage disk around Sagittarius A *, the objects would show a specific infrared spurt as they moved in the orbit of the black hole. They developed this theory in a 2005 document and added it in a follow-up report in 2006. However, the technology at that time could not find such a cradle.

In 2016, the GRAVITY high-speed optical interferometer of the European Southern Observatory with a very large telescope (VLT) was put into operation, which changed all that. The accuracy and sensitivity of GRAVITY helped astronomers find the discovery of three flames in the Sagittarius A * accreditation disc. The new findings of the research team of the European Southern Observatory were published in the October 18 issue of the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics.

Broderick said, "Although the discovery of fencing has existed for a long time, the main finding here is the characteristic impact of these broadcasts." This influence shows that the material that produces these radiations moves around a black hole.

The light near Sagittarius A * arises during the process of breaking and connecting the magnetic field lines near a black hole. This process, called "magnetic bonding," releases a lot of energy and charges particles, resulting in extremely bright events. The infrared radiation released from these scales exhibits a characteristic winding due to its orbital motion around a black hole. In particular, when other jets are embedded in the accumulation stream around the center of the Milky Way, the center of infrared radiation moves or "overflows".

Beyond the horizon of the black hole event, matter like gas and dust moves in circular orbit at about a third of the speed of light. The orbital period of radiation – the time required to complete the lap of orbit – is the same as the interval of time between sloshing, and astronomers observe such enthusiasm every 40 to 50 minutes. Broderick said that such a short time scale is the result of gravity of a black hole, indicating that these bypass materials are very close to a black hole.

"Thirteen years ago, our view was that these flames are linked to structural variability (at the center of the galaxy) and we can use this structural variability to account for the general theory of relativity and strong gravity," Broderick said. The excitement is that this look looks right. "

Prove the existence of a black hole

Jet, deviating from the lightning, is not the only evidence that a giant black hole exists in the center of the galaxy. The center of the Milky Way undoubtedly has an object that is 4 million times larger than the mass of the Sun, but the process of proving it a black hole is a challenge.

At the center of the Milky Way there is also a nuclear cluster with more than 500,000 stars. According to Einstein's theory of relativity, astronomers assess the quality of hidden celestial bodies in the center of the Milky Way by measuring the quality of the stars and the gases that surround them. Broderick said that this further supports the view that 4 million solar mass objects are supermassive black holes.

"As far as we know, no other object can maintain such a quality without collapse in such a compact structure," Broderick said. "If it's not a black hole, it has to be a very strange thing outside of our current, cognitive boundaries."

In addition, observations show that many substances really disappear in the center of our galaxy. These substances are dragged into the center of the galaxy and eventually caught in the growing disk to accumulate around the black hole. Although most of the material in the acoustic disc is safe around the A * gun, too close to the material is constantly attracted to and across the black hole event horizon. The event horizon is the outermost border of a black hole and a space-time interval. When a substance falls into a black hole across the event horizon, it can no longer escape. Broderick said researchers can see that substances become extremely bright due to friction when they cross the horizon of the event.

"This is a kind of discussion about" Where does it go? "We know that these substances fall into the black hole, because we see it as an increase in brightness, but we do not see the impact." The light so definitely disappears in some places.

Consequently, the existence of the event horizon and a black hole behind it has become the most reasonable explanation for the peculiar behavior of the Milky Way center. "From a personal point of view it is really exciting to see a prophecy that is finally confirmed," says Brodrick. "I think this is a very important moment in the history of science." Black holes are something like an anecdote. This is something with a real foundation. "


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