Science fiction is full of super heroes who have supernatural gifts. But the reality is that some ordinary humans also have special powers and often don't know.
It's about the genetic benefits that a small percentage of the population has.
This advantage arises thanks to genetic mutations, a natural process that changes our DNA.
Just like some hereditary genetic diseases, others have more luck and inherit genes that give them unusual abilities.
Here we give you five examples of some of the benefits you can have thanks to your genes.
1. Perfect underwater vision
Most of us we saw everything running away if we open our eyes when we sink into the water.
This is due to a problem in physics: water density is similar to eye fluids and light refraction cannot enter the eye properly.
This is why humans usually only see well when we come into contact with air.
But there are exceptions: moken city, which inhabits the Andaman Sea, the Indian Ocean sector between Burma and Thailand.
These tribes are known as "sea gypsies" because they spend most of their lives living in huts on water or on boats, and only go ashore for inventory.
If you have a moken gene, you can see crystals under water.
It is believed that this genetic mutation arose because Moken spent a lot of time underwater, collecting food from the sea floor and fishing spears on the seabed.
A scientific study published in 2003 in the journal Current Biology revealed that moken genetic mutations make their eyes change shape under water.
This allows light to properly bias when entering your eyes and allows you to see clearly, even submerged more than 20 meters under water.
2. Tolerance to cold
Other genetic advantages observed in some indigenous people are related to the ability to withstand low temperatures.
The human body has a normal temperature range that ranges from 36.5 and 37.5 ℃. That is why most humans are better prepared to face hot climates than cold climates.
Normal body can not resist extreme cold. But there are some populations that have that capacity, thanks to their special genes.
Tribes such as Inuits, which inhabit the North Pole, or Nenet, who live in northern Russia, have adapted to freezing temperatures.
Their bodies react differently to cold because they are biologically different from others.
For example, they don't tremble with cold, they have fewer sweat glands, their skin is much warmer than usual and their metabolism has a much higher level.
These skills are purely genetic: if you move to the middle of the North Pole and live there for decades, you will not get extraordinary abilities from those who carry this mutation.
3. Less hours of sleep
One skill that you can have, without belonging to any tribe, is to work well with fewer hours of sleep than usual.
Some studies show that most people need sleep between 7 and 9 hours to be able to feel rested.
Sleep deprivation can cause concentration problems and health, both physical and mental.
However, a study conducted with twins in 2014 led the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to find that there was a genetic mutation allowing some people to need less sleep.
People with mutated DEC2 genes have the ability to have more intense REM sleep, which makes their rest more effective.
With 6 hours of sleep or less they feel truly at rest and ready to face that day.
However, experts clarify that these mutations affect a small percentage of people – less than 1% of those who report little sleep.
That is why, if you sleep a little and you think you will be fine because maybe you have a genetic mutation, chances are that is not so and you need more rest.
4. Toughened bones
This advantage seems to come from superhero comics. Characters can be called "men or women with strong bones".
The majority of our framework they lose bone density and mass with age. It is known as osteoporosis and can cause fractures and deformation.
But there are some people who have mutations in a gene called SOST, which controls the protein sclerostin, which regulates and controls bone growth.
A study conducted by research and development scientists at Chiroscience in Bothell, Washington, found that those who experienced this mutation they don't lose bone mass as they get older.
Their bones continue to accumulate density and mass with the passage of time, giving them a framework for a much younger person.
This mutation was found in some Afrikaans, because the Dutch population living in South Africa was known.
Now scientists are looking for ways to replicate this mutation to enable others They can reverse the aging of their skeleton.
5. Adaptation to height
The Andean community calls it "soroche" and anyone who has suffered will not forget it easily. Discomfort felt at height by lack of oxygen.
This one altitude sickness or a bad mountain Usually causes dizziness, low pressure, headaches and respiratory problems.
There are many recommended tricks to avoid it: move slowly, eat a little, don't try hard, chew coca. Some resorts use drugs. But the reality is that even many fall "apunados".
However, that is not a problem that affects populations living in the mountains.
Study conducted Quechua from the Andes and Tibet from the Himalayas They show that they have genetic advantages that allow them to adapt to their environment.
Their torso is bigger and have greater lung capacity, which allows them to enter more oxygen with every inspiration.
And while most people produce more red blood cells when their bodies receive less oxygen, they produce less.
This characteristic is maintained even when this population moved to a lower place, because they are part of their genes.
Maybe this mutation does not officially make them "superheroes" but more than a tourist who struggles to climb the mountain at the pace of an ant and is followed by a place that walks – sometimes carrying several bags – of course he believes they have super powers.
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