Dark matter is what the universe mainly consists of – almost 80% of the mass of the universe is made up of dark matter. However, dark matter remains mostly elusive for astrophysicists. What exactly dark matter is and how it came about is something that physicists and astrophysicists have been striving to decipher for many years.
Scientists have long believed that dark matter is a substance left by the Big Bang. Researchers have long been searching for this type of matter, but so far all experimental searches have remained unsuccessful.
A recent study published recently in Physical Review Letters suggests that dark matter may have been produced even before the Big Bang during the era known as space inflation, a time when space was rapidly expanding. This rapid expansion is thought to give rise to certain types of particles known as scalars. The famous Higgs Boson is the only scalar particle discovered so far.
This study revealed a new link between particle physics and astronomy. "If dark matter is made up of new particles that were born before the Big Bang, they affect the way galaxies are distributed in the sky in a unique way. This connection can be used to reveal their identities and draw conclusions from the times before the Big Bang, "says Tommy Tenkanen of Johns Hopkins University and the author of the study.
Even if little is known about its origin, dark matter plays an important role in the formation of galaxies and galactic clusters. It exists through the effect of its gravity on how visible matter moves and distributes in space.
The new study has developed a simple mathematical framework to help establish that dark matter may have been produced before the Big Bang happened. "We don't know what dark matter is, but if it has anything to do with any scalar particles, it may be older than the Big Bang. With the proposed mathematical scenario, we don't have to accept new kinds of interactions between visible and dark matter beyond gravity. which we already know is available, "commented Tenkanen.
It should be noted here that the idea of the existence of dark matter before the Big Bang is not entirely new. In fact, scientists would not be able to come up with calculations or mathematical formulations that could support the idea. A new study interrupts this and also shows that a simple mathematical framework can actually explain the origin of dark matter. It also shows that theorists have always neglected simple mathematical possibilities that could explain the origin of dark matter.
The mathematical framework developed in the study would also be useful in testing the origin of dark matter by analyzing the signatures left by dark matter on the propagation of matter in the universe.
"Although this type of dark matter is too elusive to be detected in particle experiments, it can reveal its presence in astronomical observations. We will soon learn more about the origin of dark matter when the Euclid satellite is launched in 2022. It will be very exciting to see what it will reveal about dark matter and whether its discoveries can be used to reach the times before the Big Bang, ”he hoped is Tenkanen.