Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that can develop at any age. Often has a slow, gradual onset, which can make it difficult to detect and diagnose in children.
In this article, we look at what and describe the symptoms, causes, and risk factors for children.
We also explore how doctors diagnose and treat conditions, ways to help prevent them and the complications they can cause.
What is type 2 diabetes?
In children with type 2 diabetes, the body is resistant to insulin or cannot produce enough.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition characterized by high blood sugar levels, or glucose.
The pancreas produces a hormone called which helps control the amount of sugar in the blood.
In someone with type 2 diabetes, both the body does not produce enough insulin, or does not respond to hormones properly, and this is called.
In the past, the medical community was called type 2 diabetes, both adult or non-insulin onset diabetes. However, this condition affects the increasing number of children and adolescents, because the rate continues to increase.
According to the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, doctors in the United States are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between 2011 and 2012.
Type 2 diabetes is a long-term disease that can cause serious complications if a person does not receive treatment. At present, there is no cure.
Type 2 diabetes often has a slow, gradual onset. Because of this, it can be difficult to detect in children.
Common signs and symptoms of both types of diabetes are similar. Children and adults can experience:
- Increased urination. When there is excess sugar in the blood, the kidneys must work harder to absorb and filter it. This can cause an increase in urination.
- Increased thirst. An increase in urination can cause. A person may feel very thirsty and need to drink more than usual.
- Fatigue. When the body is less able to use blood sugar properly, this can cause, because there can be many problems that may be common in diabetics, such as dehydration.
- Blurred vision. High blood sugar levels can draw fluid from the eyepiece, making it more difficult to focus.
- Dark skin. Insulin resistance can cause certain areas of the skin to darken. The medical term for this is acanthosis nigricans, and often affects the armpits and back of the neck.
- Slow healing wounds. High blood sugar levels can cause longer healing times for wounds and skin infections.
Causes and risk factors
Obesity causes insulin resistance, which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Anyone can develop type 2 diabetes, including children. This condition is more likely to develop in adults and children who are overweight or obese.
Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes by causing insulin resistance. This occurs when the organs and tissues do not respond properly to insulin and do not absorb enough sugar from the blood.
Insulin resistance high blood sugar levels, lower tolerance for glucose, more, and excess glucose in the liver.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obese children and adolescents between the ages of 2–19 years between 2015 and 2016 in the US.
Authors from 2017 found that children and adults under the age of 25 who fell into the range of body mass index for obesity were four times more likely to develop type 2 diabetes than those in the normal range.
Other risk factors for type 2 diabetes in children include:
- have parents or siblings with these conditions, because they have a genetic component
- being of Asian, Pacific Islands, African, Native American or Latin ancestry
- have signs of insulin resistance, such as acanthosis nigricans
To diagnose type 2 diabetes, the doctor will ask about the child's symptoms, and they may take blood samples to check glucose levels. Doctors can also use a simple urine test to filter sugar in the urine.
In the US, the possibility of a blood test:
- Fasting blood sugar. The doctor takes this test in the morning when the child has an empty stomach. The medical community considers someone with fasting blood glucose more than 126 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl) for diabetes.
- Glycated hemoglobin (A1C). This checks the amount of glucose attached to red blood cells over time. Doctors consider someone to have diabetes if their A1C measurements are greater than 6.5 percent, or 48 millimoles per mole.
- Random blood glucose. A doctor requests this test randomly during the day. The medical community considers someone suffering from diabetes if their blood glucose level is higher than 200 mg / dl.
For a reliable diagnosis, a medical professional must take this test on two separate occasions.
To confirm the diagnosis, doctors can also request several tests, or they can check other factors, such as glucose tolerance.
Treatment for type 2 diabetes is generally the same in children and adults.
The most important treatment is lifestyle intervention, which includes weight management, dietary changes, and exercise.
Doctors can also prescribe including insulin or other drugs that help the body respond better to insulin. Children may also need to regularly monitor their blood glucose levels.
The doctor will adjust the treatment plan according to the age, needs, and severity of the child's condition.
It is important for parents and caregivers to communicate care plans to caregivers, teachers, trainers, and anyone who oversees children away from home.
Exercising at least 60 minutes every day will help children maintain a healthy weight.
Prevention of type 2 diabetes mostly involves the development of healthy lifestyle habits, such as:
Maintain a healthy weight
Ensuring that weight stays at a healthy level can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. A doctor or nutritionist can advise on healthy weight ranges for children and recommend programs to lose weight, if necessary.
Eat a balanced diet
The child's diet must contain a limited and simple amount of added sugar. Bread and pastries made with white flour may be problematic, and diets should include a lot of fruit, vegetables, lean protein, and whole grains. This will reduce the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Exercise is very important in maintaining a healthy body weight and overall health. It is recommended that children aged 5-17 get at least 60 minutes of moderate or strong physical activity every day. Invite children to play outside and be involved in sports, and limit the time spent in front of the screen. This can mean reducing video games, television and similar devices.
Children with type 2 diabetes are at risk of experiencing serious complications, including and.
Complications and other related conditions can include:
- high blood levels
- eye damage, called the medical community
- nerve damage, or
- kidney damage or failure, or diabetic nephropathy
Type 2 diabetes is becoming more common in children, because the obesity rate of children continues to increase.
This condition can be difficult to detect and diagnose in children, and doctors are not sure of the long-term effects of having it at a young age.
Focusing on healthy lifestyle habits that involve, for example, a balanced diet and lots of physical activity, can help prevent and treat type 2 diabetes in children.