Monday , August 2 2021

Learn about electricity – why isn't the battery fully recharged and emptied? / Article / NGO. LV

The world is working to improve the ability of batteries to store energy. Kristaps Vitols, a researcher in Latvia, also handled it. In LTV broadcast, Cognitive Impulse, he said that the lifetime of the battery must not be fully charged and completely discharged.

How is the victory of civilization in return for electricity?

  • 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. I found static electricity by rubbing a piece of amber against wool.
  • In 1771, Italian doctor Luigi Galvani observed that the trunk was stepped on the foot when it was spinning on it.
  • In 1800, Italian physicist Alesandro Volta created the first electric battery.
  • In 1820, Andre Marie Amper understood how the magnetic field is currently affected.
  • In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction and laid the foundation for the creation of an electric motor.
  • In 1879, the American inventor, Thomas Edison, patented the first incandescent lamp.

It was said that, when Faraday showed a breakthrough to his country's prime minister, the politician asked if he had any use. Faradey at that time was determined – I didn't know, but I was sure that it would be possible to collect taxes.

Meanwhile, in other sciences, the legendary personality of Nicholas Tesla runs a different way – he has the idea of ​​making electricity free for everyone. The basic idea of ​​Tesla reel is that objects in the city center produce electricity, but light bulbs or other non-wire electrical equipment receive the energy needed from them. The problem is the number of users is very small. So, the idea of ​​Tesla rolls at least now looks like an expensive and ineffective way to send electricity to consumers. Who knows, maybe the idea of ​​electricity being available as wireless internet is not the right time.

Much better with James M. Maxwell making his ideas work. His idea of ​​how a moving magnet produces electricity has made a major breakthrough in the development of civilization. Magnets move electrons like water. By the way, the exact same electricity is often used for such comparisons, and where there is water, there is also current or current and all related measurement units.

The basic principle of electrical physics

Then what is electricity? These are electrons – small particles in small atoms. Some basic principles of physics must be considered to understand why electrons are formed like electricity.

Physicists illustrate electrons like a ball, which, like any case, has, although it is very insignificant but still attracts strength, but unlike others, has a very clear rejection power. Because atoms without electrons also have other particles – protons, they interact with each other. Usually, how many atoms do not have protons, so many electrons, and we do not feel special electricity release. At that time, for example, when rubbing one surface against another, we get electrons from one surface to another, and then the number of particles changes, they begin to attract particles of other objects. And all of this can be measured as electricity.

Electric charges can be transferred from one surface to another. For example, this happens every time hair is emitted, synthetic clothing, even if it pulls feet on the ground and touches metal objects.

The electromagnetic field, on the other hand, determines whether electrons will move as a connecting river and form a direct current, or will fly here 50 times per second, producing alternating current.

Exploring energy storage

All types of power plants currently available, except solar energy, produce alternating current. However, only direct current can accumulate. Direct current is a form in which energy is also stored in the battery, and the type of battery varies as it does: operate the device, collect the energy produced.

The way and how long the battery can store energy depends directly on the chemical elements in it. Battery chargers, on the other hand, affect the behavior of these elements. "When we collect energy, some ions move from one side to the other, and electricity does not flow in. When charging the battery, ions are parallel to the other side and wait. We connect the external load, and the current starts flowing in the opposite direction , and the ion moves backwards. That's why they are at the second equilibrium point, "Kristaps Vitols explained, a researcher at the Riga Technical University (RTU) of the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Institute.

When the battery is empty or does not do its job, they do not do the necessary reaction again, so the particles do not stand in the right place. "It's okay to throw batteries all the way. Because then the ions go to the other side, they have settled in their place, and the longer they are there, the more they like to live there. Then the battery starts to drop in capacity. can not accumulate so much and cannot operate for so long, "said Vitol.

This means that the battery must not be fully charged and completely empty. "In one case, the ion remained on one side and the other on the other.

These two extreme points lower the battery, "explained the researcher.

Not long ago, it was believed that batteries did not have to be partially recharged, because then they figuratively remembered their condition and they did not try to be full at all. Apparently – this is not a myth or truth, because everything lies in it from where the battery is made. "Those built into devices, such as lithium-ion batteries, have no memory effect. In the past, there were nickel-cadmium batteries, which were remembered – if they were half filled, only half worked," Vitol said.

In order to further enhance the battery's ability to store energy, the world does not produce millions in this industry. In Latvia, Kristaps Vitols is one of the scientists who is looking for the best battery solutions, caring about them like living organisms. "There is no electronics, only chemistry and materials science, which are put together to make batteries last longer, better and cheaper. When they have to be transplanted, cells must be combined with a scheme that maintains the well-being of each cell," explained the researcher.

Battery wealth depends on temperature, but to have the electrons they collect, they must be able to move.

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