Morrison, a representative of the American story created by black authors, won the 1993 Nobel Prize and Pulitzer Fiction in 1988.
Tony helped to elevate American multiculturalism on the world stage and helped to censor her country's past, digging into the lives of the unknown and the unwanted, whom she would call "free in the heart of a democratic experiment."
New York, August 6 (AP) Nobel prize Tony Morrison, the pioneer and reigning giant of literature a modern whose imaginary power in love, Songs of Solomon and other works have transformed American letters by dramatizing the quest for freedom within race, rest to 88 years,
Publisher Alfred A. Knopf reported that Morrison died Monday night at the Montefiore Medical Center in New York. The Morrison family issued a statement via Knopf that he died after a brief illness.
"Tony Morrison died peacefully last night, surrounded by family and friends," the family said. "She was an extremely devoted mother, grandmother and aunt who was delighted to be with her family and friends. The accomplished writer who appreciates the written word, whether it be his, his students or others, read aloud and was more at home writing. "
Few authors have acquired such a quick and spectacular style. He was almost 40 years old when his first novel was published, The blueest eyeIn the early 1960s, after only six novels, she became the first black woman to receive the Nobel Prize in Literature, praised in 1993 by the Swedish Academy for her "visionary power" and for deepening "language in yes, language you want to release ”from the black and white categories. In 2019, he appeared in a famous documentary, Tony Morrison: The pieces that I am,
Morrison helped elevate American multiculturalism on the world stage and helped to censor his country's past, digging into the lives of strangers and unwanted, what she would call "free in the heart of the democratic experiment." In his novels, history – black history – It was a treasure trove of poetry, tragedy, love, adventure and good gossip, whether in the small town of Ohio in Sula or in the big city of Haarlem in the jazzShe considered the race a social construction and, through language, a better world than her characters suffered. Morrison emphasized everything from African literature and folklore a slave of the Bible and Gabriel Garcia Marquez in a wide variety of harmonious literary communities.
"The story was never just fun for me," he told his Nobel conference. "In my opinion, this is one of the main ways to absorb knowledge."
Winner of the 1988 Pulitzer Prize for love, was one of the most regal presences in the world of the book, with its expansion of gray braids; his dark and piercing eyes; and a warm and theatrical voice, able to bend a mysterious growl or rise to a humorous falsetto. "This beautiful and astute lady," James Baldwin called her.
His admirers were countless – from fellow authors, students, and workers to Barack Obama who handed him the Presidential Medal of Freedom; Oprah Winfrey, who idolized Morrison and helped greatly expand her readership. Morrison shared these high opinions, repeatedly labeling one of his novels, love, as "perfect" and rejecting the idea that artistic achievement requires tacit acceptance.
"Maya Angelo helped me without knowing," Morrison said Associated Press during an interview in 1998 "When I wrote your first book, I know why the bird in the cage sings, was an editor at Random House. He had such a good time and never said: Quién Who am I? My little book?
"I decided … winning (the Nobel) was great," Morrison added. "Nobody would take that and turn it into something else. I felt representative. I felt American. I felt from Ohio. I felt blacker than ever. I felt more woman than ever. I felt it all and put it all together, went out and had fun. "
Morrison, the second of four children of a welder and domestic worker, was born to Chloe Ardelia Wofford in Loren, Ohio, a steel town just outside of Cleveland. Her parents encouraged her to read and think, and the white children in her community did not impress her. Remembering how she felt like an "aristocrat," Morrison believed she was smarter and assumed she was wiser. She was a high school student and attended Howard University because she dreamed of living among black intellectuals.
In Howard, he spends much of his free time in the theater (laughs easily), meets and marries Jamaican architect Harold Morrison, from whom he divorced in 1964. They have two children, Harold and Slade.
But although she was teaching there, Howard disappointed her. Campus life seemed closer to a graduating school than an educational institution. Protesters, including former student at Morrison Stokey Carmichael, demanded equality. Morrison wanted that too, but he wondered what kind.
"I thought they wanted to integrate for terrible purposes," he said. "I thought they should ask for money in these black schools. That was the problem: the resources, the best team, the best teachers, the buildings that were collapsing, not in high school with some white kids. "
In 1964, he responded to an ad for a job at the Random House teaching department. For the next 15 years, this will have an impact as a book editor and as one of the few black women in the publication, this would only secure her legacy. She defended new fiction authors such as Gail Jones and Tony Cade Bambara, helped introduce American readers to African writers such as Wool Solinka, worked on mementos of Mohammed Ali, and current books by activists such as Angela Davis and Black Panther Hugh Newton. is being edited The Black Book, a collection of everything from newspaper ads to lyrics predicting their immersion in the daily routine of the past.
In the late 1960s, she was a single mother and a determined writer who was pressured by her future editor, Robert Gottlieb, by Alfred A. Knopf to decide whether to write or edit. Sitting at her kitchen table, she developed a story based on the memory of a black girl in Loren raped by her father, who wanted blue eyes. He called the novel The blueest eye,
Morrison was proud of the gift of applying "invisible ink" by making a point and allowing the reader to discover it, as his decision to preserve the skin color of his characters in paradise, Her debut as an author entered the heyday of the black arts movement and called literature a political and social outcry. But Morrison criticizes indirectness; She was political about what she didn't say. Racism and sexism were accepted; she writes about its effects, whether in The blueest eye or in Sula, a story of friendship and betrayal between two black women.
"The writers that struck me the most were the novelists who wrote in Africa: Chinua Achebe, Things are falling apartIt was a great education for me, "said Morrison, who had studied William Faulkner and Virginia Woolf as a graduate student. AP in 1998
"They took their black world for granted. No black writer (in the United States) has done so, except for Jean Tomer with reed, Everyone else had some confrontation with whites, which is not to say that Africans did not, but linguistically, there was some speculation. Language was the language of the center of the world as they were.
– Then that allowed me to write The blueest eye And don't explain anything. It was brand new! It was like stepping into a whole new world. He was releasing himself in a way that was nothing before!
She had no agent and several publishers rejected her before reaching an agreement with Holt, Reinhart, and Winston (now Henry Holt and company), who launched the novel in 1970. Sales were modest, but her book made a deep impression of New York John Leonard of the Times, one of the first and continuous advocates of his writing, whom he called "so precise, so faithful to speech and so full of pain and wonder that the novel becomes poetry."
Setting her stories in separate communities where incest and suicide were no scandalous than the sign that says "COLOR ONLY", Morrison writes about dreamers for whom the cost is often death, whether the mother's tragic choice of killing her baby and to save from bondage, c loveor the black community that implodes paradise,
Like Faulkner, his characters are saddled with the legacy and ongoing tragedy of slavery and separation. For Faulkner's white southerners who have lost their lives since the Civil War, the price is guilt, anger, and madness. For the slaves of Morrison and his descendants, ostensibly released, history continues as the most irreconcilable group.
"The future was sunset; the past something to leave behind, "writes Morrison love, in which the ghost of the slain daughter returns to chase and enslave her mother.
"And if he doesn't stay back, you might have to stomp on him." Slave life; free life: every day was a test and a test. You cannot rely on anything in a world where, even when you were the solution, you were the problem. "
Morrison's advance came in 1977 with Songs of Solomon, his third novel, and the history of the sexual, social, and ancestral education of the young dead Mlecarec. It was a black writer's first job since A son born by Richard Wright as the overall choice of Book of the Month and won the National Book Critics Circle Award. It was Morrison's first book to focus on the male character, a novel that allowed him to "leave the house, destroy the landscape."
But the mainstream was another type of education. On review Songs of Solomon, author Reynolds Price reprimanded Morrison for "the understandable but exhausting omission of active white characters" (later withdrawn). when love was ignored by the National Book Award, a protest letter from 48 black writers, including Angelo and Amiri Baraka, was published in The New York Times Book Reviewnoting that Morrison has never won a major literary award.
love He won Pulitzer and Morrison soon climbed to the top of the literary world, winning the Nobel Prize and chairing the unofficial Winfrey Reading Club Award, founded in 1996. Winfrey chose Songs of Solomon, The blueest eye, paradise and Sula over the years, and he will list all of Morrison's works as one of his favorites. Winfrey also participated in and helped produce the 1998 movie version. love,
Like so many other winners, Morrison's post-Nobel fiction is perceived less favorably than his previous work. Morrison received no major competitive awards after the Nobel Prize and was criticized for his awkward storyline and pretentious language in love and paradise, But a novel published in 2008, For mercyreceived a high rating. at home, a short novel about a young Korean War veteran, came out in 2012 and was followed three times later by contemporary drama, God help the child,
Other works by Morrison are included Playing in the Dark, a collection of essays; Dreaming Emmett, a play about the slain teenager Emmet Till; and several children's books co-authored with his son Slade Morrison (died of cancer in 2010). In November 2016, he wrote a highly-cited essay in New York on the election of Donald Trump, calling his ascension to the presidency as a sign of what whites would answer to retain their status.
"The consequences of the collapse of white privileges are so frightening that many Americans are flocking to a political platform that supports and translates violence against the defenseless as a force. These people are not as angry as they are terrified by the kind of terror that causes their knees to shake, ”he writes.
"William Faulkner understood this better than almost any other American writer. in Absalom, AbsalomIncest is less a taboo for a high-class southern family than recognizing the only drop of black blood that would obviously contaminate the family line. Instead of losing their "whiteness (once again), the family chooses to kill."
He taught for years at Princeton University, retiring in 2006, but also had an apartment in downtown Manhattan and a riverfront home in New York Rockland, which ignited in 1993, destroying manuscripts and more. . First editions of Faulkner and other writers and many family memories He restored the house and continued to live and work there.
"When I don't think of a novel or actually write it, it's not very good; The 21st century is not a very pleasant place. I need him (write) to stay stable, emotional, "he said AP in 2012
"When I'm done The blueest eye… I was not happy. I remember feeling sad. And then I thought, "Oh, you know, everybody talks about brotherhood." I wanted to write about how friends really are. (The inspiration for Sula). Suddenly the whole world turned out to be a really interesting place. All it contained was something I could use or throw away. "