Sunday , August 1 2021

For Birds-from-Heaven, Being Hot Is Not Enough to Win a Mate, They Also Must Have Movement




<div_ngcontent-c14 = "" innerhtml = "

For birds of paradise, physical and vocal characteristics and behavior evolve together, which is contrary to what we think we see for most singers

Heavenly bird adult male from Wilson, Diphyllodes respublica. This is one of 39 (or more) passerine bird species in the family taxonomy of Paradisaeidae. This species captures females on the forest floor.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

"After centuries of mistaking how we should think about the evolutionary process, it is still difficult for people to see clearly when they look right at them," said evolutionary ornithologist Richard Prum, Professor of Ornithology, and Zoological Vertebrate Curator Head at Peabody Museum of Natural History in Yale University, when I asked him to comment on this new study.

"There are no rules for beauty."

Adult blue bird-of-paradise man, Paradisaea rudolphi, is an intermediate member of the taxonomic family, Paradisaeidae. This species captures females under the tree. Some ornithologists consider the blue bird of heaven to be the most beautiful bird of all living birds.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

At first glance, birds from heaven seem to oppose conventional wisdom about the evolution of sexual signals in songbirds. Serious birders and evolutionary students often note that the complexity of feather colors and ornaments appears to be inversely proportional to the complexity of songs on songbirds: more colorful birds have fewer complicated songs, while less-colored birds have more complicated songs. This idea is certainly not new; even Charles Darwin (ref & amp; ref) and Alfred Russel Wallace discuss this pattern.

Indeed, these familiar motives form the basis of the "transfer hypothesis" (ref) The theoretical rationale underlying this hypothesis is that if two different sexual signals are equally expensive for men to develop or express, then the reverse exchange between evolution and interspecific is expected between related taxa (i.e.; ref & amp; ref) Only a few weeks ago, scientists were based in Oxford University reported strong support for this hypothesis in birds, and they found that evidence for this pattern remained strong even when taking into account other key factors, including habitat type, ecological differences and interspecific interactions (ref)

Consider this study, how birds (often referred to as BoP) evolved All things – Stunning feather colors, intricate ornaments, complex calls, and dances that seem to change shape and change shape?

New research published by evolutionary biologist Russell Ligon, a postdoctoral researcher at Cornell University' Ornithology Laboratory ("Lab O"), and its collaborators, show that the choice of pairs in birds-from-heaven has not focused primarily on one trait, but on the contrary, women evaluate the overall attractiveness of men – the color of feathers and ornaments and their ability to sing and dance. Furthermore, Dr. Ligon and his colleagues also found evidence that partner choice might have encouraged the expression of other traits: whether males were shown on females on tree tops, in lowland forests or on forest floors.

Left: The king of Saxony birds of adult men, Pteridophora alberti. Showing courtship this species can be seen in understory of the forest. Right: Birds of paradise younger men, Minor Paradisaea, the look of courtship can be seen in the forest canopy.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

According to this study, all of these properties evolved together under the influence of both genetics and the environment, and the results of millions of years of careful partner choice. Ligon and his colleagues refer to these bundled traits in their paper as "dating phenotypes".

What characteristics are included in the "dating phenotype" for bird-heaven?

Ligon and his colleagues analyzed 961 video clips and 176 audio clips stored at Cornell's Macauley Library archive, in addition to examining 393 museum specimens held by American Museum of Natural History. Based on their research, they concluded that certain collections of traits and behaviors appeared to consist of "dating phenotypes" for birds of paradise (Figure 2):

  • Because the number of colors in a male increases, do the different number of sounds he makes
  • The most complicated dancers also have a large sound repertoire
  • Men who display women in groups (known as lek) have more colors so they are more visually striking in the midst of competition

Figure 2. The signal diversity index varies greatly between bird-of-paradise. To facilitate the interpretation of variations in signal diversity across families (Paradisaeidae), we produce a scale diversity score for each type of signal (color, behavior, sound) to make (left) a composite metric of the overall signal diversity (mapping heat to phylogeny) and (right ) stacked stem plots describe variations in relative diversity for each type of signal for each species. (doi:10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

"I think Figure 2 captures some of the most interesting variations in signal diversity among species," Dr. Ligon in email. "You can see, for example, that Parotias (which is mostly black, actually very black[more[more[lebih[morehere]birds displayed on the forest floor) have a low diversity of colors (small red bars), and a very large diversity of behaviors (purple bars). "

But that is really all about cumulative power woman selection

"But the KEY figure, in terms of science, is Figure 3," continued Dr. Ligon. "The positive slope, shows that species with high color diversity also have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3a), and that species with high behavioral diversity have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3b), are * things * that really make BoPs special, and suggest that women choose a partner based on a combination of ornaments. The idea that birds choose pairs based on a collection of integrated and multicomponent ornaments is the same as the way humans evaluate works of art (ie we evaluate the essence of work, which is more than a simple number of parts.), "Dr. Ligon explains in an email.

Figure 3. Positive phylogenetic correlations exist among several decorative diversity indices on the scale of evolution. (A) Color and acoustic diversity are positively correlated to bird-paradise, where species with greater color diversity show an increase in acoustic diversity when controlling for diversity in behavior, display height, and display proximity in mPGLS regression. (B) Acoustic behavior and diversity are positively correlated to bird-paradise, including species with greater behavioral diversity show increased acoustic diversity when controlling for color diversity, display height, and proximity of appearance in mPGLS regression. Species points represent end values ​​for changed behavior and diversity of log colors. Exp lek = burst lek; mPGLS = some of the phylogenetic least squares; me = million years. (doi:10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

Dating locations are also very important

Despite the brilliant colors, the music is very beautiful and very fascinating, Dr. Ligon and his colleagues found that the location of the stage where courtship shows took place was also important for bird-paradise.

"Species displayed on the ground have more dance movements than those displayed on treetops or forest understory," said study co-author, evolutionary biologist Edwin Scholes, founder and leader of Lab of O Bird-of-Paradise Project, in a press release. For example, in a forest canopy, men sing more complex songs because women nearby will be more likely to hear them. At the same time, these treetop men have less complicated dance moves. But the opposite applies to species displayed on the forest floor.

"On the dark forest floor, men may need to improve their play to get women's attention," Dr. Scholes.

Bird-of-paradise illustration by Szabolcs K & oacute; kay; background illustration and graphic design by Jillian Ditner.
(Graphic objections from the Cornell Ornithology Lab.)Cornell Ornithology Lab

What is the combination of ecology and partner choice that makes birds special?

"Heavenly birds are 'special', in a positive correlation between ornaments in all species is a phenomenon that is very rare in nature," Dr. Ligon explains in an email. This finding shows that men may be able to develop new features while still maintaining their overall attractiveness because women choose partners based on a combination of traits.

"The old hypothesis about why contraceptive pills are a particular focus on unique natural history, and evolution, from this group," Dr. Ligon outlines. "They live in New Guinea and northern tropical Australia, in areas that basically have no mammalian competitors for fruit, and reduce predator pressure. This shows that they can meet their energetic requirements more easily, and have to worry & # 39 ; about fewer predators – it might free them to focus on partner attraction / choice. "

"In addition, the topography of New Guinea (which has promoted the isolation and diversification of human language)[more[more[lebih[morehere]), may have contributed to the independent trajectory of ornamental evolution [in birds-of-paradise], "Dr. Ligon added.

Riflebird is amazing adult man (Ptiloris magnificus) This medium-sized bird-of-paradise species packed females in the forest canopy.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

But is this evolutionary "exchange" or something else?

"I never believed there was sacrifice anywhere!" Professor Prum exclaimed in an email after he read the newspaper.

"This paper is very interesting, but the authors continue to look for a kind of powerful explanation when nothing is needed," Professor Prum explained. "In my opinion, BoPs are not special in any way except the power of sexual selection that lasts for a long time."

Using the same criteria as used to judge artwork as more than a modest number of parts, one can almost think of birds-heaven as a living masterpiece created by sensitive women.

Source:

Russell A. Ligon, Christopher D. Diaz, Janelle L. Morano, Jolyon Troscianko, Martin Stevens, Annalyse Moskeland, Timothy G. Laman, and Edwin Scholes, III (2018). The evolution of complexity that correlates in courtship signals is very different from bird-heaven, PLoS Biology, 16(11): e2006962 | doi:10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

Also quoted:

Charles Darwin (1871). Human decline and selection in relation to sex. (London, UK: John Murray: Amazon US / Amazon UK)

For Birds-from-Heaven, Being Hot Is Not Enough to Win a Pair, They Also Must Have & nbsp; Move | @GrrlScientist

">

For birds of paradise, physical and vocal characteristics and behavior evolve together, which is contrary to what we think we see for most singers

Heavenly bird adult male from Wilson, Diphyllodes respublica. This is one of 39 (or more) passerine bird species in the family taxonomy of Paradisaeidae. This species captures females on the forest floor.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

"After centuries of mistaking how we should think about the evolutionary process, it is still difficult for people to see clearly when they look right at them," said evolutionary ornithologist Richard Prum, Professor of Ornithology, and Head of Zoological Vertebrate Curators at the Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University, when I asked him to comment on this new study.

"There are no rules for beauty."

Adult blue bird-of-paradise man, Paradisaea rudolphi, is an intermediate member of the taxonomic family, Paradisaeidae. This species captures females under the tree. Some ornithologists consider the blue bird of heaven to be the most beautiful bird of all living birds.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

At first glance, birds from heaven seem to oppose conventional wisdom about the evolution of sexual signals in songbirds. Serious birders and evolutionary students often note that the complexity of feather colors and ornaments appears to be inversely proportional to the complexity of songs on songbirds: more colorful birds have fewer complicated songs, while less-colored birds have more complicated songs. This idea is certainly not new; even Charles Darwin (ref & ref) and Alfred Russel Wallace discuss this pattern.

Indeed, these well-known motives form the basis of the "transfer hypothesis" (ref). The theoretical rationale underlying this hypothesis is that if two different sexual signals are equally expensive for men to develop or express, then an inverse, interspecific reverse exchange is expected to occur between related taxa (i.e., refs & refs). Just a few weeks ago, scientists based at the University of Oxford reported strong support for this hypothesis in birds, and they found that evidence for this pattern remained strong even when taking into account other key factors, including habitat type, ecological differences and interspecific interactions . (ref).

Consider this study, how birds (often referred to as BoP) evolved All things – Stunning feather colors, intricate ornaments, complex calls, and dances that seem to change shape and change shape?

New research published by evolutionary biologist Russell Ligon, a post-doctoral researcher at the Cornell University Ornithology Laboratory ("Lab of O"), and collaborators, shows that the choice of pairs in birds-of-heaven has not focused primarily on one trait, but instead, women evaluate the overall attractiveness of men – the color of feathers and their ornaments and the ability to sing and dance. Furthermore, Dr. Ligon and his colleagues also found evidence that partner choice might have encouraged the expression of other traits: whether males were shown on females on tree tops, in lowland forests or on forest floors.

Left: The king of Saxony birds of adult men, Pteridophora alberti. Showing courtship this species can be seen in understory of the forest. Right: Birds of paradise younger men, Minor Paradisaea, the look of courtship can be seen in the forest canopy.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

According to this study, all of these properties evolved together under the influence of both genetics and the environment, and the results of millions of years of careful partner choice. Ligon and his colleagues refer to these bundled traits in their paper as "dating phenotypes".

What characteristics are included in the "dating phenotype" for bird-heaven?

Ligon and his colleagues analyzed 961 video clips and 176 audio clips stored in the Macauley Cornell Library archive, in addition to examining 393 museum specimens held by the American Museum of Natural History. Based on their research, they concluded that certain collections of traits and behaviors appeared to consist of "dating phenotypes" for birds of paradise (Figure 2):

  • Because the number of colors in a male increases, do the different number of sounds he makes
  • The most complicated dancers also have a large sound repertoire
  • Men who display women in groups (known as lek) have more colors so they are more visually striking in the midst of competition

Figure 2. The signal diversity index varies greatly between bird-of-paradise. To facilitate the interpretation of variations in signal diversity across families (Paradisaeidae), we produce a scale diversity score for each type of signal (color, behavior, sound) to make (left) a composite metric of the overall signal diversity (mapping heat to phylogeny) and (right ) stacked stem plots describe variations in relative diversity for each type of signal for each species. (doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

"I think Figure 2 captures some of the most interesting variations in signal diversity among species," Dr. Ligon in email. "You can see, for example, that Parotias (which is mostly black, actually very black [more here] birds displayed on the forest floor) have a low diversity of colors (small red bars), and a very large diversity of behaviors (purple bars). "

But that is really all about cumulative power woman selection

"But the KEY figure, in terms of science, is Figure 3," continued Dr. Ligon. "The positive slope, shows that species with high color diversity also have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3a), and that species with high behavioral diversity have high acoustic diversity (Figure 3b), are * things * that really make BoPs special, and suggest that women choose a partner based on a combination of ornaments. The idea that birds choose pairs based on a collection of integrated and multicomponent ornaments is the same as the way humans evaluate works of art (ie we evaluate the essence of work, which is more than a simple number of parts.), "Dr. Ligon explains in an email.

Figure 3. Positive phylogenetic correlations exist among several decorative diversity indices on the scale of evolution. (A) Color and acoustic diversity are positively correlated to bird-paradise, where species with greater color diversity show an increase in acoustic diversity when controlling for diversity in behavior, display height, and display proximity in mPGLS regression. (B) Acoustic behavior and diversity are positively correlated to bird-paradise, including species with greater behavioral diversity show increased acoustic diversity when controlling for color diversity, display height, and proximity of appearance in mPGLS regression. Species points represent end values ​​for changed behavior and diversity of log colors. Exp lek = burst lek; mPGLS = some of the phylogenetic least squares; me = million years. (doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962)doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

Dating locations are also very important

Despite the brilliant colors, the music is very beautiful and very fascinating, Dr. Ligon and his colleagues found that the location of the stage where courtship shows took place was also important for bird-paradise.

"Species displayed on the ground have more dance movements than those displayed on treetops or forest understory," said study co-author, evolutionary biologist Edwin Scholes, founder and leader of the Lab of O-Paradise Project, in a press release. For example, in a forest canopy, men sing more complex songs because women nearby will be more likely to hear them. At the same time, these treetop men have less complicated dance moves. But the opposite applies to species displayed on the forest floor.

"On the dark forest floor, men may need to improve their play to get women's attention," Dr. Scholes.

Bird-of-paradise illustration by Szabolcs Kókay; background illustration and graphic design by Jillian Ditner.
(Graphic objections from the Cornell Ornithology Lab.)Cornell Ornithology Lab

What is the combination of ecology and partner choice that makes birds special?

"Heavenly birds are 'special', in a positive correlation between ornaments in all species is a phenomenon that is very rare in nature," Dr. Ligon explains in an email. This finding shows that men may be able to develop new features while still maintaining their overall attractiveness because women choose partners based on a combination of traits.

"The old hypothesis about why contraceptive pills are a particular focus on unique natural history, and evolution, from this group," Dr. Ligon outlines. "They live in New Guinea and northern tropical Australia, in areas that basically have no mammalian competitors for fruit, and reduce predator pressure. This shows that they can meet their energetic needs more easily, and have to" worry "about fewer predators – maybe free them to focus on the attraction of a partner / choice. "

"In addition, the topography of New Guinea (which has promoted the isolation and diversification of human language) [more here]), may have contributed to the independent trajectory of ornamental evolution [in birds-of-paradise], "Dr. Ligon added.

Riflebird is amazing adult man (Ptiloris magnificus) This medium-sized bird-of-paradise species packed females in the forest canopy.
(Credit: Tim Laman, with good permission.)Page Team

But is this evolutionary "exchange" or something else?

"I never believed there was sacrifice anywhere!" Professor Prum exclaimed in an email after he read the newspaper.

"This paper is very interesting, but the authors continue to look for a kind of powerful explanation when nothing is needed," Professor Prum explained. "In my opinion, BoPs are not special in any way except the power of sexual selection that lasts for a long time."

Using the same criteria as used to judge artwork as more than a modest number of parts, one can almost think of birds-heaven as a living masterpiece created by sensitive women.

Source:

Russell A. Ligon, Christopher D. Diaz, Janelle L. Morano, Jolyon Troscianko, Martin Stevens, Annalyse Moskeland, Timothy G. Laman, and Edwin Scholes, III (2018). The evolution of complexity that correlates in courtship signals is very different from bird-heaven, PLoS Biology, 16(11): e2006962 | doi: 10.1371 / journal.pbio.2006962

Also quoted:

Charles Darwin (1871). Human decline and selection in relation to sex. (London, England: John Murray: US Amazon / Amazon UK)

For Birds from Heaven, Being Heat Is Not Enough to Win a Mate, They Also Must Have Movements @GrrlScientist


Source link