DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid – is widely known as the molecule found in the nucleus of all our cells that contains genetic information.
It is shaped like a double spiral and is made of small sections called nucleotides.
Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base.
The sugar content of this particular molecule is called deoxyribose and constitutes D in the DNA.
This is a five carbon carbon cyclic carbon, arranged as a pentagon.
The second carbon atom has a single hydrogen atom attached to the deoxyribose.
This can also have extra oxygen.
In this case, the oxidized chemical then forms what is simply known as ribose-R in RNA.
Mostly, deoxy prefix literally means without oxygen,
Form of RNA and DNA
Ribose can do almost everything that deoxyribose can and encode genetic information in some cells and organisms.
When oxygen is present, it drastically changes the way the chemicals bind and sit together with other molecules.
When oxygen is present in the RNA, it can take different forms.
When oxygen is not present at this particular site – in DNA – the molecule is formed as an iconographic double helix.
DNA is often broken down into RNA and read by cells to translate and transcribe the genetic code to make proteins and other molecules essential to life.
RNA uses three of the same base pairs as DNA: cytosine, guanine, adenine.
The other base pair, thymine, is replaced in the Uracil RNA.
RNA is also commonly found in simpler organisms such as bacteria.
It is often a virus, in hepatitis, influenza and HIV all forms of RNA.
All animal cells use DNA, with one remarkable exception: mitochondria.
Mitochondria are the strengths of the cell and convert glucose into pyruvate and then into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during the Krebs cycle.
This process takes place in this cell organel and ATP is the universal form of energy and is used in every aerobic organism.
The mitochondria have a small RNA thread that is unique in the animal kingdom.
It is transmitted by the mother exclusively (the father's life in the sperm but dissolves during fertilization) and allows people to follow their kinship over time.