New diseases are emerging all the time, and sexually transmitted infections (IPA) are no exception.
Here we will tell you about four bacteria that can become serious threats to health publicly.
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1. Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis (also called meningococci) can cause invasive meningitis, potentially fatal brain infection, and spinal cord protective membranes.
But it is increasingly referred to as the cause of urogenital infections.
In fact, an amazing 70-year study describes how male chimpanzees are infected with urethral infection after passing the bacteria from the nose and throat to their own penis by suicide (the usual behavior in these animals, the authors of the study clarify).
for between 5% and 10% of the elderly also carry N. meningitidis in the back of the nose and throat.
Studies have shown that they can potentially pass on the bacteria to their partners through oral sex, deep kissing or other intimate contacts.
Researchers are still not sure which of these transmission pathways has caused outbreaks of invasive forms of the disease among gay and bisexual men in Europe, Canada and the United States.
However, another study of urethritis caused by N. meningitidis in men found that the source of the infection was oral sex.
Scientists have found that a strain that has plagued several American cities in 2015 has acquired DNA through a Genetic recombination with his native N. gonorrhoeae, which causes gonorrhea,
This mutation allowed ITS to spread more effectively.
Five species of N. meningitidis are responsible for most of the infections worldwide. Fortunately, there is two vaccines which, together, can offer some protection.
2. Mycoplasma genitalium
Mycoplasma genitalium, one of the smallest known bacteria, has a tremendous reputation as a troublesome STI.
Identified in the 1980s, bacteria today infect approximately between 1% and 2% of people and that's special often in adolescents and young people.
M. genitalium infection, although often without symptoms, can mimic chlamydia or gonorrhea, with prolonged irritation of the urethra and cervix.
Because it can cause inflammatory pelvic disease in the female reproductive system, it is associated with infertility, miscarriage, premature birth and even death of the fetus.
Condoms can help prevent infection. Meanwhile, researchers have warned of growing resistance from M. genitalium to treatment with antibiotics azithromycin and doxycycline.
"My concern for this organism is that as it becomes more sustainable it will become more widespread," says Matthew Golden, director of the Public Health Program for HIV / STIs in Seattle and King, USA.
More tests can help prevent the appearance of over-sensitive M. genitalium.
However, available diagnostic methods based on urine tests and cervical and vaginal swabs are still very rarely used in the United States as well. they have not yet been approved by the regulators.
3. Shigella flexneri
Shigella (or Shigella dysentery) is transmitted by direct or indirect contact with human feces.
The infection causes severe stomach cramps and spasms explosive outbreaks of diarrhea filled with blood and mucus, which help to preserve the transmission of bacteria.
Although the disease is most commonly associated with young children and people traveling through low and middle income countries, scientists began to document cases of shygelosis in homosexual and bisexual men in the 1970s.
Scientists believe that S. flexneri has basically benefited from a new niche for oral anal sex transmission and has since led to a number of outbreaks around the world.
Dr Demetrias Daskalakis, Deputy Commissioner of the Department of Health and Mental Health of New York, says that SIP Rapidly resistant to azithromycin, which is also used to treat gonorrhea.
He points out that, as public health agencies are concerned about the potential of Shigella's dysentery to stimulate the emergence of superbug gonorrhea, many have adopted a nuanced treatment strategy.
For adults who have no other health problems, experts now recommend not taking antibiotics and leaving the shingles unpleasant but generally limited.
4. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
This STI caused by unusual strains of Chlamydia trachomatis can cause a "terrible infection," according to Christopher Shysle, a doctor at the One Medical clinic in Castro, San Francisco.
LGV may begin to temporarily produce a bud, a blister or a genital ulcer and then invade the lymphatic system on the body
Rectal infection can mimic inflammatory bowel disease and cause chronic and severe abnormalities of the colon and rectum, such as fistulas and contractions.
Over the last decade LGV has becomeEach time more often in Europe and North Americaand it is linked to numerous outbreaks of disease, especially among homosexual and bisexual men.
As with chlamydia, LGV may increase the risk of HIV infection.
Using condoms during vaginal or anal sex can reduce the risk of infection, whereas LGV treatment may require a course of antibiotics, such as doxycycline, for three weeks.
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