<div data-thumb = "https://3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn.net/newman/csz/news/tmb/2019/22-researchersc.jpg" data-src = "https: //3c1703fe8d.site.internapcdn. net / newman / gfx / news / 2019/22-researc.jpg This data sample shows how the human milk microbe has a strong association with the feeding method (ie pumped directly into the breast ): Moossavi et al./Cell Host & Microbe">
Large-scale analysis in humans indicates that indirect breastfeeding is associated with exhaustion of oral bacteria and a greater abundance of potential pathogens than direct breastfeeding. Findings published on February 13 in the magazine Cell Host & Microbe, suggest that the microbe of milk is affected by bacteria from both the baby's mouth and environmental sources such as breast pumps, although further research will be needed to assess the effects these changes may have on the microbial of the intestine and the health of the baby.
"As far as we know, this is one of the largest microbial studies of human milk conducted so far," said senior author of the study, Megan Azad, Manitoba Children's Hospital Research Institute, and the Canadian Research Department of Chronic Disease Development at the University. Manitoba. "This study greatly expands our understanding of human milk microbes and the factors that can affect it, and the results will inspire new research into breastfeeding and breastfeeding, especially pumping."
Although previously thought to be sterile, breast milk is now known to contain low levels of bacteria. While the complexity of how the microbe of the mother affects the baby's microbial is not yet known, this complex community of bacteria in the milk can help to establish the microbial of the intestine. Disruptions in this process can alter the baby's microbes, leading to a predisposition to chronic illnesses such as allergies, asthma and obesity. Although recent microbial studies on human milk suggest that it may be affected by various factors, these findings have not been reproduced in large-scale studies, and the determinants of milk microbes are still largely unknown.
To cope with this knowledge gap, Azad and her associates have sequenced bacterial genes on milk samples from 393 healthy mothers three to four months after birth. They use this information to investigate how the microbe of milk is influenced by maternal factors, early events, breastfeeding practices and other dairy ingredients. Researchers found a high degree of variability in maternal milk microbes. Among the many factors analyzed, breastfeeding – whether mothers provide milk with or without a pump – is the only sequential factor directly related to the composition of the milk microbe.
In particular, indirect breastfeeding (defined as at least one portion of infused milk over the previous two weeks) is associated with a greater abundance of potential opportunistic pathogens, such as Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonadaceae. "Increased exposure to potential pathogens in breast milk may pose a risk for respiratory infection in the baby, potentially explaining why breast-fed infants are at increased risk for pediatric asthma compared to those fed exclusively to the breast," says the first author Shirin Moussavi of the University of Manitoba To determine whether this is the case, further research will need to be done on how the changes in the milk microbe affect the colonization of the microbial of the intestinal worm, which any prejudice on health.
Conversely, direct nursing without a pump is associated with microbes commonly found in the mouth as well as with a greater total bacterial richness and variety. Taken together, findings suggest that direct breastfeeding facilitates the acquisition of microbial from oral, while indirect breastfeeding leads to enrichment with environmental bacteria.
"Our study adds new evidence to the ongoing debate on the origin of milk microbes," says Akaz. Contrary to, or in addition to, the hypothesis that lactic bacteria come from the mother's intestines, our results indicate that baby's oral bacteria are important for the formation of milk microbes. opportunities to understand and change the microbial of milk. "
Interestingly, researchers also observed differences in milk microbial depending on the sex of the baby. These findings further support the idea that milk microbiotics are partly derived from the oral cavity of children, which may be different for males and females.
According to the authors, this topic is mature for further investigation. In general, the many factors they evaluate explain less than a third of the overall change observed in the microbial composition of milk, suggesting that other unmeasured factors contribute to large differences in milk microbial profiles.
In future studies, researchers will further explore the composition and function of milk microbes. In addition to the bacteria, they will profile the fungus in the milk samples. They also plan to investigate how the microbe of milk affects both intestinal microbiosis and the development of baby and baby. Specifically, their projects will examine the relationship of microbiotics to milk with baby growth, asthma and allergies. "This work could have important implications for microbial-based strategies for the prevention of chronic conditions at the beginning of life," Azad says.
The intestinal microbial of small puppies is regulated by hydrogen peroxide produced by lactation
Cell Host & Microbe, Moossavi et al .: "Composition and Variation of Human Milk Microbial Influenced by Maternal and Early Factors" -6, DOI: 10.1016 / j.chom.2019.01.011
Researchers compare the effect of breastfeeding on pumping the human milk microbial (2019, February 13)
withdrawn on 13 February 2019
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